Disadvantages of thermoluminescence dating
In the late 1940s, American chemist Willard Libby developed a method for determining when the death of an organism had occurred.
He first noted that the cells of all living things contain atoms taken in from the organism's environment, including carbon; all organic compounds contain carbon.
Ionizing radiation cases trapped electrons to accumulate and in laboratory before measuring radiation dose it is necessary to determine the time that has passed since zeroing event.
(Avvakumova, et al., 1990) The rate of radiation dose is estimated by measuring the alpha radioactivity of the sample material.
It will often work well with stones that have been heated by fire.
A very small percentage of carbon, however, consists of the isotope carbon 14, or , which is unstable.
In particular, it is necessary to estimate the uranium and potassium content.
Gamma radiation of material measured is also calculated from potassium content and alpha productivity.
During the measurement the material is heated and the thermoluminescence, as weak signal of light, is produced.
That thermoluminescence is proportional to the produced dose of radiation.
(Atiken, 1985) Imperfections in natural crystalline materials lead to dips in electronic potential and, where there is an electron trap, free electrons are either attracted or trapped.