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Anti-Jewish excesses that occurred in the neighboring countries often extended to Romania.
In 16, Cossacks invaded Romania, murdering a great number of Jews in Jassy.
They were invited either to reestablish war-ravaged towns (1761, Suceava) or to enlarge others (1796, Focsani).
The newcomers were encouraged by the landowners to found commercial centers, the so-called burgs.
He resided in Jassy and he had a representative for Walachia in Bucharest.
The hakham bashi's function was hereditary and included the right of collecting taxes on religious ceremonies and contributions from every head of a family — comprising 30,000 taxpayers altogether in the two principalities in 1803 — as well as conferring exemption from taxes and tolls.
As they were foreign subjects they asked their consuls to intercede and, in 1819, the prince of Moldavia decided that the hakham bashi should have jurisdiction only over "native" Jews.
Jewish merchants exported leather, cattle, and corn.Greek Orthodox Christianity also preached intolerance toward Jews and shaped the first codes of law: the Church laws of Moldavia and Walachia in 1640.Both proclaimed the Jews as heretics and forbade all relations with them.With the exception of physicians, Jews were not accepted as witnesses in trials.In the codes of 17, the Jews are scarcely mentioned.
Many of the Jews were craftsmen, such as furriers, tailors, boot makers, tinsmiths, and watchmakers.